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Vehicle Towing

VEHICLE CODE
SECTION 22650-22711 

22650. It is unlawful for any peace officer or any unauthorized 
person to remove any unattended vehicle from a highway to a garage or 
to any other place, except as provided in this code. 
(a) Those law enforcement and other agencies identified in this 
chapter as having the authority to remove vehicles shall also have 
the authority to provide hearings in compliance with the provisions 
of Section 22852. During these hearings the storing agency shall have 
the burden of establishing the authority for, and the validity of, 
the removal. 
(b) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent a review or 
other action as may be permitted by the laws of this state by a 
court of competent jurisdiction.


22651. A peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with 
Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, or a regularly 
employed and salaried employee, who is engaged in directing traffic 
or enforcing parking laws and regulations, of a city, county, or 
jurisdiction of a state agency in which a vehicle is located, may 
remove a vehicle located within the territorial limits in which the 
officer or employee may act, under the following circumstances: 
(a) When a vehicle is left unattended upon a bridge, viaduct, or 
causeway or in a tube or tunnel where the vehicle constitutes an 
obstruction to traffic. 
(b) When a vehicle is parked or left standing upon a highway in a 
position so as to obstruct the normal movement of traffic or in a 
condition so as to create a hazard to other traffic upon the highway. 
(c) When a vehicle is found upon a highway or public land and a 
report has previously been made that the vehicle is stolen or a 
complaint has been filed and a warrant thereon is issued charging 
that the vehicle was embezzled. 
(d) When a vehicle is illegally parked so as to block the entrance 
to a private driveway and it is impractical to move the vehicle from 
in front of the driveway to another point on the highway. 
(e) When a vehicle is illegally parked so as to prevent access by 
firefighting equipment to a fire hydrant and it is impracticable to 
move the vehicle from in front of the fire hydrant to another point 
on the highway. 
(f) When a vehicle, except highway maintenance or construction 
equipment, is stopped, parked, or left standing for more than four 
hours upon the right-of-way of a freeway that has full control of 
access and no crossings at grade and the driver, if present, cannot 
move the vehicle under its own power. 
(g) When the person in charge of a vehicle upon a highway or 
public land is, by reason of physical injuries or illness, 
incapacitated to an extent so as to be unable to provide for its 
custody or removal. 
(h) (1) When an officer arrests a person driving or in control of 
a vehicle for an alleged offense and the officer is, by this code or 
other law, required or permitted to take, and does take, the person 
into custody. 
(2) When an officer serves a notice of an order of suspension or 
revocation pursuant to Section 13388 or 13389. 
(i) (1) When a vehicle, other than a rented vehicle, is found upon 
a highway or public land, or is removed pursuant to this code, and 
it is known that the vehicle has been issued five or more notices of 
parking violations to which the owner or person in control of the 
vehicle has not responded within 21 calendar days of notice of 
citation issuance or citation issuance or 14 calendar days of the 
mailing of a notice of delinquent parking violation to the agency 
responsible for processing notices of parking violations, or the 
registered owner of the vehicle is known to have been issued five or 
more notices for failure to pay or failure to appear in court for 
traffic violations for which a certificate has not been issued by the 
magistrate or clerk of the court hearing the case showing that the 
case has been adjudicated or concerning which the registered owner's 
record has not been cleared pursuant to Chapter 6 (commencing with 
Section 41500) of Division 17, the vehicle may be impounded until 
that person furnishes to the impounding law enforcement agency all of 
the following: 
(A) Evidence of his or her identity. 
(B) An address within this state at which he or she can be 
located. 
(C) Satisfactory evidence that all parking penalties due for the 
vehicle and all other vehicles registered to the registered owner of 
the impounded vehicle, and all traffic violations of the registered 
owner, have been cleared. 
(2) The requirements in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (1) shall be 
fully enforced by the impounding law enforcement agency on and after 
the time that the Department of Motor Vehicles is able to provide 
access to the necessary records. 
(3) A notice of parking violation issued for an unlawfully parked 
vehicle shall be accompanied by a warning that repeated violations 
may result in the impounding of the vehicle. In lieu of furnishing 
satisfactory evidence that the full amount of parking penalties or 
bail has been deposited, that person may demand to be taken without 
unnecessary delay before a magistrate, for traffic offenses, or a 
hearing examiner, for parking offenses, within the county in which 
the offenses charged are alleged to have been committed and who has 
jurisdiction of the offenses and is nearest or most accessible with 
reference to the place where the vehicle is impounded. Evidence of 
current registration shall be produced after a vehicle has been 
impounded, or, at the discretion of the impounding law enforcement 
agency, a notice to appear for violation of subdivision (a) of 
Section 4000 shall be issued to that person. 
(4) A vehicle shall be released to the legal owner, as defined in 
Section 370, if the legal owner does all of the following: 
(A) Pays the cost of towing and storing the vehicle. 
(B) Submits evidence of payment of fees as provided in Section 
9561. 
(C) Completes an affidavit in a form acceptable to the impounding 
law enforcement agency stating that the vehicle was not in possession 
of the legal owner at the time of occurrence of the offenses 
relating to standing or parking. A vehicle released to a legal owner 
under this subdivision is a repossessed vehicle for purposes of 
disposition or sale. The impounding agency shall have a lien on any 
surplus that remains upon sale of the vehicle to which the registered 
owner is or may be entitled, as security for the full amount of the 
parking penalties for all notices of parking violations issued for 
the vehicle and for all local administrative charges imposed pursuant 
to Section 22850.5. The legal owner shall promptly remit to, and 
deposit with, the agency responsible for processing notices of 
parking violations from that surplus, on receipt of that surplus, the 
full amount of the parking penalties for all notices of parking 
violations issued for the vehicle and for all local administrative 
charges imposed pursuant to Section 22850.5. 
(5) The impounding agency that has a lien on the surplus that 
remains upon the sale of a vehicle to which a registered owner is 
entitled pursuant to paragraph (4) has a deficiency claim against the 
registered owner for the full amount of the parking penalties for 
all notices of parking violations issued for the vehicle and for all 
local administrative charges imposed pursuant to Section 22850.5, 
less the amount received from the sale of the vehicle. 
(j) When a vehicle is found illegally parked and there are no 
license plates or other evidence of registration displayed, the 
vehicle may be impounded until the owner or person in control of the 
vehicle furnishes the impounding law enforcement agency evidence of 
his or her identity and an address within this state at which he or 
she can be located. 
(k) When a vehicle is parked or left standing upon a highway for 
72 or more consecutive hours in violation of a local ordinance 
authorizing removal. 
(l) When a vehicle is illegally parked on a highway in violation 
of a local ordinance forbidding standing or parking and the use of a 
highway, or a portion thereof, is necessary for the cleaning, repair, 
or construction of the highway, or for the installation of 
underground utilities, and signs giving notice that the vehicle may 
be removed are erected or placed at least 24 hours prior to the 
removal by a local authority pursuant to the ordinance. 
(m) When the use of the highway, or a portion of the highway, is 
authorized by a local authority for a purpose other than the normal 
flow of traffic or for the movement of equipment, articles, or 
structures of unusual size, and the parking of a vehicle would 
prohibit or interfere with that use or movement, and signs giving 
notice that the vehicle may be removed are erected or placed at least 
24 hours prior to the removal by a local authority pursuant to the 
ordinance. 
(n) Whenever a vehicle is parked or left standing where local 
authorities, by resolution or ordinance, have prohibited parking and 
have authorized the removal of vehicles. Except as provided in 
subdivisions (v) and (w), a vehicle shall not be removed unless signs 
are posted giving notice of the removal. 
(o) (1) When a vehicle is found or operated upon a highway, public 
land, or an offstreet parking facility under the following 
circumstances: 
(A) With a registration expiration date in excess of six months 
before the date it is found or operated on the highway, public lands, 
or the offstreet parking facility. 
(B) Displaying in, or upon, the vehicle, a registration card, 
identification card, temporary receipt, license plate, special plate, 
registration sticker, device issued pursuant to Section 4853, or 
permit that was not issued for that vehicle, or is not otherwise 
lawfully used on that vehicle under this code. 
(C) Displaying in, or upon, the vehicle, an altered, forged, 
counterfeit, or falsified registration card, identification card, 
temporary receipt, license plate, special plate, registration 
sticker, device issued pursuant to Section 4853, or permit. 
(2) When a vehicle described in paragraph (1) is occupied, only a 
peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 
830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, may remove the vehicle. 
(3) For the purposes of this subdivision, the vehicle shall be 
released under either of the following circumstances: 
(A) To the registered owner or person in control of the vehicle 
only after the owner or person furnishes the storing law enforcement 
agency with proof of current registration and a currently valid 
driver's license to operate the vehicle. 
(B) To the legal owner or the legal owner's agency, without 
payment of any fees, fines, or penalties for parking tickets or 
registration and without proof of current registration, if the 
vehicle will only be transported pursuant to the exemption specified 
in Section 4022 and if the legal owner does all of the following: 
(i) Pays the cost of towing and storing the vehicle. 
(ii) Completes an affidavit in a form acceptable to the impounding 
law enforcement agency stating that the vehicle was not in 
possession of the legal owner at the time of occurrence of an offense 
relating to standing or parking. A vehicle released to a legal owner 
under this subdivision is a repossessed vehicle for purposes of 
disposition or sale. The impounding agency has a lien on any surplus 
that remains upon sale of the vehicle to which the registered owner 
is or may be entitled, as security for the full amount of parking 
penalties for any notices of parking violations issued for the 
vehicle and for all local administrative charges imposed pursuant to 
Section 22850.5. Upon receipt of any surplus, the legal owner shall 
promptly remit to, and deposit with, the agency responsible for 
processing notices of parking violations from that surplus, the full 
amount of the parking penalties for all notices of parking violations 
issued for the vehicle and for all local administrative charges 
imposed pursuant to Section 22850.5. 
(4) The impounding agency that has a lien on the surplus that 
remains upon the sale of a vehicle to which a registered owner is 
entitled has a deficiency claim against the registered owner for the 
full amount of parking penalties for any notices of parking 
violations issued for the vehicle and for all local administrative 
charges imposed pursuant to Section 22850.5, less the amount received 
from the sale of the vehicle. 
(5) As used in this subdivision, "offstreet parking facility" 
means an offstreet facility held open for use by the public for 
parking vehicles and includes a publicly owned facility for offstreet 
parking, and a privately owned facility for offstreet parking if a 
fee is not charged for the privilege to park and it is held open for 
the common public use of retail customers. 
(p) When the peace officer issues the driver of a vehicle a notice 
to appear for a violation of Section 12500, 14601, 14601.1, 14601.2, 
14601.3, 14601.4, 14601.5, or 14604 and the vehicle is not impounded 
pursuant to Section 22655.5. A vehicle so removed from the highway 
or public land, or from private property after having been on a 
highway or public land, shall not be released to the registered owner 
or his or her agent, except upon presentation of the registered 
owner's or his or her agent's currently valid driver's license to 
operate the vehicle and proof of current vehicle registration, or 
upon order of a court. 
(q) When a vehicle is parked for more than 24 hours on a portion 
of highway that is located within the boundaries of a common interest 
development, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1351 of the 
Civil Code, and signs, as required by paragraph (1) of subdivision 
(a) of Section 22658 of this code, have been posted on that portion 
of highway providing notice to drivers that vehicles parked thereon 
for more than 24 hours will be removed at the owner's expense, 
pursuant to a resolution or ordinance adopted by the local authority. 
(r) When a vehicle is illegally parked and blocks the movement of 
a legally parked vehicle. 
(s) (1) When a vehicle, except highway maintenance or construction 
equipment, an authorized emergency vehicle, or a vehicle that is 
properly permitted or otherwise authorized by the Department of 
Transportation, is stopped, parked, or left standing for more than 
eight hours within a roadside rest area or viewpoint. 
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), when a commercial motor 
vehicle, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 
15210, is stopped, parked, or left standing for more than 10 hours 
within a roadside rest area or viewpoint. 
(3) For purposes of this subdivision, a roadside rest area or 
viewpoint is a publicly maintained vehicle parking area, adjacent to 
a highway, utilized for the convenient, safe stopping of a vehicle to 
enable motorists to rest or to view the scenery. If two or more 
roadside rest areas are located on opposite sides of the highway, or 
upon the center divider, within seven miles of each other, then that 
combination of rest areas is considered to be the same rest area. 
(t) When a peace officer issues a notice to appear for a violation 
of Section 25279. 
(u) When a peace officer issues a citation for a violation of 
Section 11700 and the vehicle is being offered for sale. 
(v) (1) When a vehicle is a mobile billboard advertising display, 
as defined in Section 395.5, and is parked or left standing in 
violation of a local resolution or ordinance adopted pursuant to 
subdivision (m) of Section 21100, if the registered owner of the 
vehicle was previously issued a warning citation for the same 
offense, pursuant to paragraph (2). 
(2) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 22507, a city or 
county, in lieu of posting signs noticing a local ordinance 
prohibiting mobile billboard advertising displays adopted pursuant to 
subdivision (m) of Section 21100, may provide notice by issuing a 
warning citation advising the registered owner of the vehicle that he 
or she may be subject to penalties upon a subsequent violation of 
the ordinance, that may include the removal of the vehicle as 
provided in paragraph (1). A city or county is not required to 
provide further notice for a subsequent violation prior to the 
enforcement of penalties for a violation of the ordinance. 
(w) (1) When a vehicle is parked or left standing in violation of 
a local ordinance or resolution adopted pursuant to subdivision (p) 
of Section 21100, if the registered owner of the vehicle was 
previously issued a warning citation for the same offense, pursuant 
to paragraph (2). 
(2) Notwithstanding subdivision (a) of Section 22507, a city or 
county, in lieu of posting signs noticing a local ordinance 
regulating advertising signs adopted pursuant to subdivision (p) of 
Section 21100, may provide notice by issuing a warning citation 
advising the registered owner of the vehicle that he or she may be 
subject to penalties upon a subsequent violation of the ordinance 
that may include the removal of the vehicle as provided in paragraph 
(1). A city or county is not required to provide further notice for a 
subsequent violation prior to the enforcement of penalties for a 
violation of the ordinance.

22651.05. (a) A trained volunteer of a state or local law 
enforcement agency, who is engaged in directing traffic or enforcing 
parking laws and regulations, of a city, county, or jurisdiction of a 
state agency in which a vehicle is located, may remove or authorize 
the removal of a vehicle located within the territorial limits in 
which an officer or employee of that agency may act, under any of the 
following circumstances: 
(1) When a vehicle is parked or left standing upon a highway for 
72 or more consecutive hours in violation of a local ordinance 
authorizing the removal. 
(2) When a vehicle is illegally parked or left standing on a 
highway in violation of a local ordinance forbidding standing or 
parking and the use of a highway, or a portion thereof, is necessary 
for the cleaning, repair, or construction of the highway, or for the 
installation of underground utilities, and signs giving notice that 
the vehicle may be removed are erected or placed at least 24 hours 
prior to the removal by local authorities pursuant to the ordinance. 
(3) Wherever the use of the highway, or a portion thereof, is 
authorized by local authorities for a purpose other than the normal 
flow of traffic or for the movement of equipment, articles, or 
structures of unusual size, and the parking of a vehicle would 
prohibit or interfere with that use or movement, and signs giving 
notice that the vehicle may be removed are erected or placed at least 
24 hours prior to the removal by local authorities pursuant to the 
ordinance. 
(4) Whenever a vehicle is parked or left standing where local 
authorities, by resolution or ordinance, have prohibited parking and 
have authorized the removal of vehicles. A vehicle may not be removed 
unless signs are posted giving notice of the removal. 
(5) Whenever a vehicle is parked for more than 24 hours on a 
portion of highway that is located within the boundaries of a common 
interest development, as defined in subdivision (c) of Section 1351 
of the Civil Code, and signs, as required by Section 22658.2, have 
been posted on that portion of highway providing notice to drivers 
that vehicles parked thereon for more than 24 hours will be removed 
at the owner's expense, pursuant to a resolution or ordinance adopted 
by the local authority. 
(b) The provisions of this chapter that apply to a vehicle removed 
pursuant to Section 22651 apply to a vehicle removed pursuant to 
subdivision (a). 
(c) For purposes of subdivision (a), a "trained volunteer" is a 
person who, of his or her own free will, provides services, without 
any financial gain, to a local or state law enforcement agency, and 
who is duly trained and certified to remove a vehicle by a local or 
state law enforcement agency.

22651.07. (a) A person that charges for towing or storage, or both, 
except for storage unrelated to a tow, shall do all of the 
following: 
(1) (A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), post in the office 
area of the storage facility, in plain view of the public, the 
Towing Fees and Access Notice and have copies readily available to 
the public. 
(B) An automotive repair dealer, registered pursuant to Article 3 
(commencing with Section 9884) of Chapter 20.3 of Division 3 of the 
Business and Professions Code, that does not provide towing services 
is exempt from the requirement to post the Towing Fees and Access 
Notice in the office area. 
(2) Provide, upon request, a copy of the Towing Fees and Access 
Notice to any owner or operator of a towed or stored vehicle. 
(3) Provide a distinct notice on an itemized invoice for any 
towing or storage, or both, charges stating: "Upon request, you are 
entitled to receive a copy of the Towing Fees and Access Notice." 
This notice shall be contained within a bordered text box, printed in 
no less than 10-point type. 
(b) Prior to receiving payment for any towing, recovery, or 
storage-related fees, a person that charges for towing or storage, or 
both, shall provide an itemized invoice of actual charges to the 
vehicle owner or his or her agent. If an automotive repair dealer, 
registered pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 9884) of 
Chapter 20.3 of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code, did 
not provide the tow, and passes along, from the tower to the 
consumer, any of the information required on the itemized invoice, 
pursuant to subdivision (e), the automotive repair dealer shall not 
be responsible for the accuracy of those items of information that 
remain unaltered. 
(c) Prior to paying any towing, recovery, or storage-related fees, 
a vehicle owner or his or her agent shall have the right to all of 
the following: 
(1) Receive his or her personal property, at no charge, during 
normal business hours. Normal business hours are Monday through 
Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., inclusive, except state holidays. 
(2) Retrieve his or her vehicle during the first 72 hours of 
storage and not pay a lien fee. 
(3) Request a copy of the Towing Fees and Access Notice. 
(4) Be permitted to pay by cash or a valid bank credit card. 
Credit charges for towing and storage services shall comply with 
Section 1748.1 of the Civil Code. Law enforcement agencies may 
include the costs of providing for payment by credit when agreeing 
with a towing or storage provider on rates. 
(d) The Towing Fees and Access Notice shall be a standardized 
document plainly printed in no less that 10-point type. A person may 
distribute the form using its own letterhead, but the language of the 
Towing Fees and Access Notice shall read as follows:

+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Towing Fees and Access Notice | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Note: The following information is intended to | 
|serve as a general summary of some of the | 
|laws that provide vehicle owners certain rights | 
|when their vehicle is towed. It is not intended | 
|to summarize all of the laws that may be | 
|applicable nor is it intended to fully and | 
|completely state the entire law in any area | 
|listed. Please review the applicable California | 
|code for a definitive statement of the law in | 
|your particular situation. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|How much can a towing company charge? | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Rates for public tows and storage are generally | 
|established by an agreement between the law | 
|enforcement agency requesting the tow and the | 
|towing company (to confirm the approved rates, | 
|you may contact the law enforcement agency that | 
|initiated the tow; additionally, these rates | 
|are required to be posted at the storage | 
|facility). | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Rates for private property tows and | 
|storage cannot exceed the approved rates for | 
|the law enforcement agency that has primary | 
|jurisdiction for the property from which the | 
|vehicle was removed or the towing company's | 
|approved CHP rate. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Rates for owner's request tows and storage are | 
|generally established by mutual agreement | 
|between the requestor and the towing company, | 
|but may be dictated by agreements established | 
|between the requestor's motor club and motor | 
|club service provider. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Where can you complain about a towing company? | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|For public tows: Contact the law enforcement | 
|agency initiating the tow. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Your rights if your vehicle is towed: | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Generally, prior to paying any towing and | 
|storage-related fees you have the right to: | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ Receive an itemized invoice of actual charges.| 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ Receive your personal property, at no charge, | 
|during normal business hours. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ Retrieve your vehicle during the first 72 | 
|hours of storage and not pay a lien fee. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ Request a copy of the Towing Fees and Access | 
|Notice. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ Pay by cash or valid bank credit card. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ Inspect your vehicle or have your insurance | 
|carrier inspect your vehicle at the storage | 
|facility, at no charge, during normal business | 
|hours. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|You have the right to have the vehicle released | 
|to you upon (1) payment of all towing and | 
|storage-related fees, (2) presentation of a | 
|valid photo identification, (3) presentation of | 
|reliable documentation showing that you are the | 
|owner of the vehicle or that the owner has | 
|authorized you to take possession of the | 
|vehicle, and (4), if applicable, presentation | 
|of any required police or law enforcement | 
|release documents. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Prior to your vehicle being repaired: | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ You have the right to choose the repair | 
|facility and to have no repairs made to your | 
|vehicle unless you authorize them in writing. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|^ Any authorization you sign for towing and any | 
|authorization you sign for repair must be on | 
|separate forms. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|What if I do not pay the towing and storage- | 
|related fees or abandon my vehicle at the | 
|towing company? | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Pursuant to Sections 3068.1 to 3074, inclusive, | 
|of the Civil Code, a towing company may sell | 
|your vehicle and any moneys received will be | 
|applied to towing and storage-related fees that | 
|have accumulated against your vehicle. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|You are responsible for paying the towing | 
|company any outstanding balance due on any of | 
|these fees once the sale is complete. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Who is liable if my vehicle was damaged during | 
|towing or storage? | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|Generally the owner of a vehicle may recover | 
|for any damage to the vehicle resulting from | 
|any intentional or negligent act of a | 
|person causing the removal of, or removing, the | 
|vehicle. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|What happens if a towing company violates the | 
|law? | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
|If a tow company does not satisfactorily meet | 
|certain requirements detailed in this notice, | 
|you may bring a lawsuit in court, generally in | 
|small claims court. The tower may be civilly | 
|liable for damages up to two times the amount | 
|charged, not to exceed $500, and possibly more | 
|for certain violations. | 
+------------------------------------------------+ 
| | 
+------------------------------------------------+

(e) "Itemized invoice," as used in this section, means a written 
document that contains the following information. Any document that 
substantially complies with this subdivision shall be deemed an 
"itemized invoice" for purposes of this section: 
(1) The name, address, telephone number, and carrier 
identification number as required by subdivision (a) of Section 
34507.5 of the person that is charging for towing and storage. 
(2) If ascertainable, the registered owner or operator's name, 
address, and telephone number. 
(3) The date service was initiated. 
(4) The location of the vehicle at the time service was initiated, 
including either the address or nearest intersecting roadways. 
(5) A vehicle description that includes, if ascertainable, the 
vehicle year, make, model, odometer reading, license plate number, or 
if a license plate number is unavailable, the vehicle identification 
number (VIN). 
(6) The service dispatch time, the service arrival time of the tow 
truck, and the service completion time. 
(7) A clear, itemized, and detailed explanation of any additional 
services that caused the total towing-related service time to exceed 
one hour between service dispatch time and service completion time. 
(8) The hourly rate or per item rate used to calculate the total 
towing and recovery-related fees. These fees shall be listed as 
separate line items. 
(9) If subject to storage fees, the daily storage rate and the 
total number of days stored. The storage fees shall be listed as a 
separate line item. 
(10) If subject to a gate fee, the date and time the vehicle was 
either accessed, for the purposes of returning personal property, or 
was released after normal business hours. Normal business hours are 
Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., inclusive, except 
state holidays. A gate fee shall be listed as a separate line item. 
(11) A description of the method of towing. 
(12) If the tow was not requested by the vehicle's owner or 
driver, the identity of the person or governmental agency that 
directed the tow. This paragraph shall not apply to information 
otherwise required to be redacted under Section 22658. 
(13) A clear, itemized, and detailed explanation of any additional 
services or fees. 
(f) "Person," as used in this section, has the same meaning as 
described in Section 470. 
(g) An insurer or insurer's agent shall be permitted to pay for 
towing and storage charges by bank draft. 
(h) A person who violates this section is civilly liable to a 
registered or legal owner of the vehicle, or a registered owner's 
insurer, for up to two times the amount charged. For any action 
brought under this section, liability shall not exceed five hundred 
dollars ($500) per vehicle. 
(i) This section shall not apply to the towing or storage of a 
repossessed vehicle by any person subject to, or exempt from, the 
Collateral Recovery Act (Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 7500) of 
Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code). 
(j) This section does not relieve a person from the obligation to 
comply with the provision of any other law.

22651.1. Persons operating or in charge of any storage facility 
where vehicles are stored pursuant to Section 22651 shall accept a 
valid bank credit card or cash for payment of towing and storage by 
the registered owner, legal owner, or the owner's agent claiming the 
vehicle. A credit card shall be in the name of the person presenting 
the card. "Credit card" means "credit card" as defined in subdivision 
(a) of Section 1747.02 of the Civil Code, except, for the purposes 
of this section, credit card does not include a credit card issued by 
a retail seller. A person operating or in charge of any storage 
facility who refuses to accept a valid bank credit card shall be 
liable to the owner of the vehicle or to the person who tendered the 
fees for four times the amount of the towing and storage charges, but 
not to exceed five hundred dollars ($500). In addition, persons 
operating or in charge of the storage facility shall have sufficient 
funds on the premises to accommodate and make change in a reasonable 
monetary transaction. 
Credit charges for towing and storage services shall comply with 
Section 1748.1 of the Civil Code. Law enforcement agencies may 
include the costs of providing for payment by credit when agreeing 
with a towing or storage provider on rates.


22651.2. (a) Any peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 
(commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, 
or any regularly employed and salaried employee, who is engaged in 
directing traffic or enforcing parking laws and regulations of a 
city, county, or jurisdiction of a state agency in which a vehicle is 
located, may remove a vehicle located within the territorial limits 
in which the officer or employee may act when the vehicle is found 
upon a highway or any public lands, and if all of the following 
requirements are satisfied: 
(1) Because of the size and placement of signs or placards on the 
vehicle, it appears that the primary purpose of parking the vehicle 
at that location is to advertise to the public an event or function 
on private property or on public property hired for a private event 
or function to which the public is invited. 
(2) The vehicle is known to have been previously issued a notice 
of parking violation that was accompanied by a notice warning that an 
additional parking violation may result in the impoundment of the 
vehicle. 
(3) The registered owner of the vehicle has been mailed a notice 
advising of the existence of the parking violation and that an 
additional violation may result in the impoundment of the vehicle. 
(b) Subdivision (a) does not apply to a vehicle bearing any sign 
or placard advertising any business or enterprise carried on by or 
through the use of that vehicle. 
(c) Section 22852 applies to the removal of any vehicle pursuant 
to this section.

22651.3. (a) Any peace officer, as that term is defined in Chapter 
4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal 
Code, or any regularly employed and salaried employee, who is engaged 
in directing traffic or enforcing parking laws and regulations, of a 
city, county, or jurisdiction of a state agency in which any 
vehicle, other than a rented vehicle, is located may remove the 
vehicle from an offstreet public parking facility located within the 
territorial limits in which the officer or employee may act when the 
vehicle is known to have been issued five or more notices of parking 
violation over a period of five or more days, to which the owner or 
person in control of the vehicle has not responded or when any 
vehicle is illegally parked so as to prevent the movement of a 
legally parked vehicle. 
A notice of parking violation issued to a vehicle which is 
registered in a foreign jurisdiction or is without current California 
registration and is known to have been issued five or more notices 
of parking violation over a period of five or more days shall be 
accompanied by a warning that repeated violations may result in the 
impounding of the vehicle. 
(b) The vehicle may be impounded until the owner or person in 
control of the vehicle furnishes to the impounding law enforcement 
agency evidence of his or her identity and an address within this 
state at which he or she can be located and furnishes satisfactory 
evidence that bail has been deposited for all notices of parking 
violation issued for the vehicle. In lieu of requiring satisfactory 
evidence that the bail has been deposited, the impounding law 
enforcement agency may, in its discretion, issue a notice to appear 
for the offenses charged, as provided in Article 2 (commencing with 
Section 40500) of Chapter 2 of Division 17. In lieu of either 
furnishing satisfactory evidence that the bail has been deposited or 
accepting the notice to appear, the owner or person in control of the 
vehicle may demand to be taken without unnecessary delay before a 
magistrate within the county in which the offenses charged are 
alleged to have been committed and who has jurisdiction of the 
offenses and is nearest or most accessible with reference to the 
place where the vehicle is impounded. 
(c) Evidence of current registration shall be produced after a 
vehicle has been impounded. At the discretion of the impounding law 
enforcement agency, a notice to appear for violation of subdivision 
(a) of Section 4000 may be issued to the owner or person in control 
of the vehicle, if the two days immediately following the day of 
impoundment are weekend days or holidays.

22651.4. (a) A peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing 
with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, may 
impound a vehicle and its cargo pursuant to Section 34517. 
(b) A member of the department may impound a vehicle and its cargo 
pursuant to Section 34518. 
(c) A member of the department may store or impound a vehicle upon 
determination that the registrant of the vehicle or the driver of 
the vehicle has failed to pay registration, regulatory, fuel permit, 
or other fees, or has an outstanding warrant in a county in the 
state. The impoundment charges are the responsibility of the owner of 
the vehicle. The stored or impounded vehicle shall be released upon 
payment of those fees or fines or the posting of bail. The driver or 
owner of the vehicle may request a hearing to determine the validity 
of the seizure.


22651.5. (a) Any peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 
(commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, 
or any regularly employed and salaried employee who is engaged in 
directing traffic or enforcing parking laws or regulations, may, upon 
the complaint of any person, remove a vehicle parked within 500 feet 
of any occupied building of a school, community college, or 
university during normal hours of operation, or a vehicle parked 
within a residence or business district, from a highway or from 
public or private property, if an alarm device or horn has been 
activated within the vehicle, whether continuously activated or 
intermittently and repeatedly activated, the peace officer or 
designated employee is unable to locate the owner of the vehicle 
within 20 minutes from the time of arrival at the vehicle's location, 
and the alarm device or horn has not been completely silenced prior 
to removal. 
(b) Upon removal of a vehicle from a highway or from public or 
private property pursuant to this section, the peace officer or 
designated employee ordering the removal shall immediately report the 
removal and the location to which the vehicle is removed to the 
Stolen Vehicle System of the Department of Justice.

22651.6. A peace officer or employee specified in Section 22651 may 
remove a vehicle located within the territorial limits in which the 
officer or employee may act when the vehicle was used by a person who 
was engaged in a motor vehicle speed contest, as described in 
subdivision (a) of Section 23109, and the person was arrested and 
taken into custody for that offense by a peace officer.

22651.7. (a) In addition to, or as an alternative to, removal, a 
peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 
830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, or a regularly employed 
and salaried employee who is engaged in directing traffic or 
enforcing parking laws and regulations, of a jurisdiction in which a 
vehicle is located may immobilize the vehicle with a device designed 
and manufactured for the immobilization of vehicles, on a highway or 
any public lands located within the territorial limits in which the 
officer or employee may act if the vehicle is found upon a highway or 
public lands and it is known to have been issued five or more 
notices of parking violations that are delinquent because the owner 
or person in control of the vehicle has not responded to the agency 
responsible for processing notices of parking violation within 21 
calendar days of notice of citation issuance or citation issuance or 
14 calendar days of the mailing of a notice of delinquent parking 
violation, or the registered owner of the vehicle is known to have 
been issued five or more notices for failure to pay or failure to 
appear in court for traffic violations for which no certificate has 
been issued by the magistrate or clerk of the court hearing the case 
showing that the case has been adjudicated or concerning which the 
registered owner's record has not been cleared pursuant to Chapter 6 
(commencing with Section 41500) of Division 17. The vehicle may be 
immobilized until that person furnishes to the immobilizing law 
enforcement agency all of the following: 
(1) Evidence of his or her identity. 
(2) An address within this state at which he or she can be 
located. 
(3) Satisfactory evidence that the full amount of parking 
penalties has been deposited for all notices of parking violation 
issued for the vehicle and any other vehicle registered to the 
registered owner of the immobilized vehicle and that bail has been 
deposited for all traffic violations of the registered owner that 
have not been cleared. The requirements in this paragraph shall be 
fully enforced by the immobilizing law enforcement agency on and 
after the time that the Department of Motor Vehicles is able to 
provide access to the necessary records. A notice of parking 
violation issued to the vehicle shall be accompanied by a warning 
that repeated violations may result in the impounding or 
immobilization of the vehicle. In lieu of furnishing satisfactory 
evidence that the full amount of parking penalties or bail, or both, 
have been deposited that person may demand to be taken without 
unnecessary delay before a magistrate, for traffic offenses, or a 
hearing examiner, for parking offenses, within the county in which 
the offenses charged are alleged to have been committed and who has 
jurisdiction of the offenses and is nearest or most accessible with 
reference to the place where the vehicle is immobilized. Evidence of 
current registration shall be produced after a vehicle has been 
immobilized or, at the discretion of the immobilizing law enforcement 
agency, a notice to appear for violation of subdivision (a) of 
Section 4000 shall be issued to that person. 
(b) A person, other than a person authorized under subdivision 
(a), shall not immobilize a vehicle.


22651.8. For purposes of paragraph (1) of subdivision (i) of 
Section 22651 and Section 22651.7, "satisfactory evidence" includes, 
but is not limited to, a copy of a receipt issued by the department 
pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 4760 for the payment of 
notices of parking violations appearing on the department's records 
at the time of payment. The processing agency shall, within 72 hours 
of receiving that satisfactory evidence, update its records to 
reflect the payments made to the department. If the processing agency 
does not receive the amount of the parking penalties and 
administrative fees from the department within four months of the 
date of issuance of that satisfactory evidence, the processing agency 
may revise its records to reflect that no payments were received for 
the notices of parking violation.

22651.9. (a) Any peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 
(commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, 
or any regularly employed and salaried employee, who is engaged in 
directing traffic or enforcing parking laws and regulations, of a 
city, county, or city and county in which a vehicle is located, may 
remove a vehicle located within the territorial limits in which the 
officer or employee may act when the vehicle is found upon a street 
or any public lands, if all of the following requirements are 
satisfied: 
(1) Because of a sign or placard on the vehicle, it appears that 
the primary purpose of parking the vehicle at that location is to 
advertise to the public the private sale of that vehicle. 
(2) Within the past 30 days, the vehicle is known to have been 
previously issued a notice of parking violation, under local 
ordinance, which was accompanied by a notice containing all of the 
following: 
(A) A warning that an additional parking violation may result in 
the impoundment of the vehicle. 
(B) A warning that the vehicle may be impounded pursuant to this 
section, even if moved to another street, so long as the signs or 
placards offering the vehicle for sale remain on the vehicle. 
(C) A listing of the streets or public lands subject to the 
resolution or ordinance adopted pursuant to paragraph (4), or if all 
streets are covered, a statement to that effect. 
(3) The notice of parking violation was issued at least 24 hours 
prior to the removal of the vehicle. 
(4) The local authority of the city, county, or city and county 
has, by resolution or ordinance, authorized the removal of vehicles 
pursuant to this section from the street or public lands on which the 
vehicle is located. 
(b) Section 22852 applies to the removal of any vehicle pursuant 
to this section.


22652. (a) A peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing 
with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, or any 
regularly employed and salaried employee engaged in directing traffic 
or enforcing parking laws and regulations of a city, county, or 
jurisdiction of a state agency may remove any vehicle from a stall or 
space designated for physically disabled persons pursuant to Section 
22511.7 or 22511.8, located within the jurisdictional limits in 
which the officer or employee is authorized to act, if the vehicle is 
parked in violation of Section 22507.8 and if the police or sheriff' 
s department or the Department of the California Highway Patrol is 
notified. 
(b) In a privately or publicly owned or operated offstreet parking 
facility, this section applies only to those stalls and spaces if 
the posting requirements under subdivisions (a) and (d) of Section 
22511.8 have been complied with and if the stalls or spaces are 
clearly signed or marked.

22652.5. The owner or person in lawful possession of an offstreet 
parking facility, or any local authority owning or operating an 
offstreet parking facility, who causes a vehicle to be removed from 
the parking facility pursuant to Section 22511.8, or any state, city, 
or county employee, is not civilly liable for the removal if the 
police or sheriff's department in whose jurisdiction the offstreet 
parking facility or the stall or space is located or the Department 
of the California Highway Patrol has been notified prior to the 
removal.


22652.6. Any peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing 
with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, or any 
regularly employed and salaried employee engaged in directing traffic 
or enforcing parking laws and regulations of a city or county, may 
remove any vehicle parked or standing on the streets or highways or 
from a stall or space of a privately or publicly owned or operated 
offstreet parking facility within the jurisdiction of the city or 
county when the vehicle is in violation of a local ordinance or 
resolution adopted pursuant to Section 22511.57.

22653. (a) Any peace officer, as that term is defined in Chapter 
4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal 
Code, other than an employee directing traffic or enforcing parking 
laws and regulations, may remove a vehicle from private property 
located within the territorial limits in which the officer is 
empowered to act, when a report has previously been made that the 
vehicle has been stolen or a complaint has been filed and a warrant 
thereon issued charging that the vehicle has been embezzled. 
(b) Any peace officer, as that term is defined in Chapter 4.5 
(commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, 
may, after a reasonable period of time, remove a vehicle from 
private property located within the territorial limits in which the 
officer is empowered to act, if the vehicle has been involved in, and 
left at the scene of, a traffic accident and no owner is available 
to grant permission to remove the vehicle. This subdivision does not 
authorize the removal of a vehicle where the owner has been contacted 
and has refused to grant permission to remove the vehicle. 
(c) Any peace officer, as that term is defined in Chapter 4.5 
(commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, 
may, at the request of the property owner or person in lawful 
possession of any private property, remove a vehicle from private 
property located within the territorial limits in which the officer 
is empowered to act when an officer arrests any person driving or in 
control of a vehicle for an alleged offense and the officer is, by 
this code or other law, required or authorized to take, and does take 
the person arrested before a magistrate without unnecessary delay.

22654. (a) Whenever any peace officer, as that term is defined in 
Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the 
Penal Code, or other employee directing traffic or enforcing parking 
laws and regulations, finds a vehicle standing upon a highway, 
located within the territorial limits in which the officer or 
employee is empowered to act, in violation of Sections 22500 and 
22504, the officer or employee may move the vehicle or require the 
driver or other person in charge of the vehicle to move it to the 
nearest available position off the roadway or to the nearest parking 
location, or may remove and store the vehicle if moving it off the 
roadway to a parking location is impracticable. 
(b) Whenever the officer or employee finds a vehicle standing upon 
a street, located within the territorial limits in which the officer 
or employee is empowered to act, in violation of a traffic ordinance 
enacted by local authorities to prevent flooding of adjacent 
property, he or she may move the vehicle or require the driver or 
person in charge of the vehicle to move it to the nearest available 
location in the vicinity where parking is permitted. 
(c) Any state, county, or city authority charged with the 
maintenance of any highway may move any vehicle which is disabled or 
abandoned or which constitutes an obstruction to traffic from the 
place where it is located on a highway to the nearest available 
position on the same highway as may be necessary to keep the highway 
open or safe for public travel. In addition, employees of the 
Department of Transportation may remove any disabled vehicle which 
constitutes an obstruction to traffic on a freeway from the place 
where it is located to the nearest available location where parking 
is permitted; and, if the vehicle is unoccupied, the department shall 
comply with the notice requirements of subdivision (d). 
(d) Any state, county, or city authority charged with the 
maintenance or operation of any highway, highway facility, or public 
works facility, in cases necessitating the prompt performance of any 
work on or service to the highway, highway facility, or public works 
facility, may move to the nearest available location where parking is 
permitted, any unattended vehicle which obstructs or interferes with 
the performance of the work or service or may remove and store the 
vehicle if moving it off the roadway to a location where parking is 
permitted would be impracticable. If the vehicle is moved to another 
location where it is not readily visible from its former parked 
location or it is stored, the person causing the movement or storage 
of the vehicle shall immediately, by the most expeditious means, 
notify the owner of the vehicle of its location. If for any reason 
the vehicle owner cannot be so notified, the person causing the 
vehicle to be moved or stored shall immediately, by the most 
expeditious means, notify the police department of the city in which 
the vehicle was parked, or, if the vehicle had been parked in an 
unincorporated area of a county, notify the sheriff's department and 
nearest office of the California Highway Patrol in that county. No 
vehicle may be removed and stored pursuant to this subdivision unless 
signs indicating that no person shall stop, park, or leave standing 
any vehicle within the areas marked by the signs because the work or 
service would be done, were placed at least 24 hours prior to the 
movement or removal and storage. 
(e) Whenever any peace officer finds a vehicle parked or standing 
upon a highway in a manner so as to obstruct necessary emergency 
services, or the routing of traffic at the scene of a disaster, the 
officer may move the vehicle or require the driver or other person in 
charge of the vehicle to move it to the nearest available parking 
location. If the vehicle is unoccupied, and moving the vehicle to a 
parking location is impractical, the officer may store the vehicle 
pursuant to Sections 22850 and 22852 and subdivision (a) or (b) of 
Section 22853. If the vehicle so moved or stored was otherwise 
lawfully parked, no moving or storage charges shall be assessed 
against or collected from the driver or owner.

22655. (a) When any peace officer, as that term is defined in 
Chapter 4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the 
Penal Code or any regularly employed and salaried employee who is 
engaged in directing traffic or enforcing parking statutes and 
regulations, has reasonable cause to believe that a motor vehicle on 
a highway or on private property open to the general public onto 
which the public is explicitly or implicitly invited, located within 
the territorial limits in which the officer is empowered to act, has 
been involved in a hit-and-run accident, and the operator of the 
vehicle has failed to stop and comply with Sections 20002 to 20006, 
inclusive, the officer may remove the vehicle from the highway or 
from public or private property for the purpose of inspection. 
(b) Unless sooner released, the vehicle shall be released upon the 
expiration of 48 hours after the removal from the highway or private 
property upon demand of the owner. When determining the 48-hour 
period, weekends, and holidays shall not be included. 
(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), when a motor vehicle to be 
inspected pursuant to subdivision (a) is a commercial vehicle, any 
cargo within the vehicle may be removed or transferred to another 
vehicle. 
This section shall not be construed to authorize the removal of 
any vehicle from an enclosed structure on private property that is 
not open to the general public.


22655.3. Any peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing 
with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, pursuing a 
fleeing or evading person in a motor vehicle may remove and store, or 
cause to be removed and stored, any vehicle used in violation of 
Section 2800.1 or 2800.2 from property other than that of the 
registered owner of the vehicle for the purposes of investigation, 
identification, or apprehension of the driver if the driver of the 
vehicle abandons the vehicle and leaves it unattended. All towing and 
storage fees for a vehicle removed under this section shall be paid 
by the owner, unless the vehicle was stolen or taken without 
permission. 
No vehicle shall be impounded under this section if the driver is 
arrested before arrival of the towing equipment or if the registered 
owner is in the vehicle. 
As used in this section, "remove and store a vehicle" means that 
the peace officer may cause the removal of a vehicle to, and storage 
of a vehicle in, a private lot where the vehicle may be secured by 
the owner of the facility or by the owner's representative. 
This section is not intended to change current statute and case 
law governing searches and seizures.

22655.5. A peace officer, as defined in Chapter 4.5 (commencing 
with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, may remove 
a motor vehicle from the highway or from public or private property 
within the territorial limits in which the officer may act under the 
following circumstances: 
(a) When any vehicle is found upon a highway or public or private 
property and a peace officer has probable cause to believe that the 
vehicle was used as the means of committing a public offense. 
(b) When any vehicle is found upon a highway or public or private 
property and a peace officer has probable cause to believe that the 
vehicle is itself evidence which tends to show that a crime has been 
committed or that the vehicle contains evidence, which cannot readily 
be removed, which tends to show that a crime has been committed. 
(c) Notwithstanding Section 3068 of the Civil Code or Section 
22851 of this code, no lien shall attach to a vehicle removed under 
this section unless the vehicle was used by the alleged perpetrator 
of the crime with the express or implied permission of the owner of 
the vehicle. 
(d) In any prosecution of the crime for which a vehicle was 
impounded pursuant to this section, the prosecutor may request, and 
the court may order, the perpetrator of the crime, if convicted, to 
pay the costs of towing and storage of the vehicle, and any 
administrative charges imposed pursuant to Section 22850.5. 
(e) This section shall become operative on January 1, 1993.

22656. Any peace officer, as that term is defined in Chapter 4.5 
(commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal Code, 
may remove a vehicle from the right-of-way of a railroad, street 
railway, or light rail line located within the territorial limits in 
which the officer is empowered to act if the vehicle is parked or 
abandoned upon any track or within 7 1/2 feet of the nearest rail. 
The officer may also remove a vehicle that is parked beyond 7 1/2 
feet of the nearest rail but within the right-of-way of a railroad, 
street railway, or light rail if signs are posted giving notice that 
vehicles may be removed.


22658. (a) The owner or person in lawful possession of private 
property, including an association of a common interest development 
as defined in Section 1351 of the Civil Code, may cause the removal 
of a vehicle parked on the property to a storage facility that meets 
the requirements of subdivision (n) under any of the following 
circumstances: 
(1) There is displayed, in plain view at all entrances to the 
property, a sign not less than 17 inches by 22 inches in size, with 
lettering not less than one inch in height, prohibiting public 
parking and indicating that vehicles will be removed at the owner's 
expense, and containing the telephone number of the local traffic law 
enforcement agency and the name and telephone number of each towing 
company that is a party to a written general towing authorization 
agreement with the owner or person in lawful possession of the 
property. The sign may also indicate that a citation may also be 
issued for the violation. 
(2) The vehicle has been issued a notice of parking violation, and 
96 hours have elapsed since the issuance of that notice. 
(3) The vehicle is on private property and lacks an engine, 
transmission, wheels, tires, doors, windshield, or any other major 
part or equipment necessary to operate safely on the highways, the 
owner or person in lawful possession of the private property has 
notified the local traffic law enforcement agency, and 24 hours have 
elapsed since that notification. 
(4) The lot or parcel upon which the vehicle is parked is improved 
with a single-family dwelling. 
(b) The tow truck operator removing the vehicle, if the operator 
knows or is able to ascertain from the property owner, person in 
lawful possession of the property, or the registration records of the 
Department of Motor Vehicles the name and address of the registered 
and legal owner of the vehicle, shall immediately give, or cause to 
be given, notice in writing to the registered and legal owner of the 
fact of the removal, the grounds for the removal, and indicate the 
place to which the vehicle has been removed. If the vehicle is stored 
in a storage facility, a copy of the notice shall be given to the 
proprietor of the storage facility. The notice provided for in this 
section shall include the amount of mileage on the vehicle at the 
time of removal and the time of the removal from the property. If the 
tow truck operator does not know and is not able to ascertain the 
name of the owner or for any other reason is unable to give the 
notice to the owner as provided in this section, the tow truck 
operator shall comply with the requirements of subdivision (c) of 
Section 22853 relating to notice in the same manner as applicable to 
an officer removing a vehicle from private property. 
(c) This section does not limit or affect any right or remedy that 
the owner or person in lawful possession of private property may 
have by virtue of other provisions of law authorizing the removal of 
a vehicle parked upon private property. 
(d) The owner of a vehicle removed from private property pursuant 
to subdivision (a) may recover for any damage to the vehicle 
resulting from any intentional or negligent act of a person causing 
the removal of, or removing, the vehicle. 
(e) (1) An owner or person in lawful possession of private 
property, or an association of a common interest development, causing 
the removal of a vehicle parked on that property is liable for 
double the storage or towing charges whenever there has been a 
failure to comply with paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (a) 
or to state the grounds for the removal of the vehicle if requested 
by the legal or registered owner of the vehicle as required by 
subdivision (f). 
(2) A property owner or owner's agent or lessee who causes the 
removal of a vehicle parked on that property pursuant to the 
exemption set forth in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of 
subdivision (l) and fails to comply with that subdivision is guilty 
of an infraction, punishable by a fine of one thousand dollars 
($1,000). 
(f) An owner or person in lawful possession of private property, 
or an association of a common interest development, causing the 
removal of a vehicle parked on that property shall notify by 
telephone or, if impractical, by the most expeditious means 
available, the local traffic law enforcement agency within one hour 
after authorizing the tow. An owner or person in lawful possession of 
private property, an association of a common interest development, 
causing the removal of a vehicle parked on that property, or the tow 
truck operator who removes the vehicle, shall state the grounds for 
the removal of the vehicle if requested by the legal or registered 
owner of that vehicle. A towing company that removes a vehicle from 
private property in compliance with subdivision (l) is not 
responsible in a situation relating to the validity of the removal. A 
towing company that removes the vehicle under this section shall be 
responsible for the following: 
(1) Damage to the vehicle in the transit and subsequent storage of 
the vehicle. 
(2) The removal of a vehicle other than the vehicle specified by 
the owner or other person in lawful possession of the private 
property. 
(g) (1) (A) Possession of a vehicle under this section shall be 
deemed to arise when a vehicle is removed from private property and 
is in transit. 
(B) Upon the request of the owner of the vehicle or that owner's 
agent, the towing company or its driver shall immediately and 
unconditionally release a vehicle that is not yet removed from the 
private property and in transit. 
(C) A person failing to comply with subparagraph (B) is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 
(2) If a vehicle is released to a person in compliance with 
subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), the vehicle owner or authorized 
agent shall immediately move that vehicle to a lawful location. 
(h) A towing company may impose a charge of not more than one-half 
of the regular towing charge for the towing of a vehicle at the 
request of the owner, the owner's agent, or the person in lawful 
possession of the private property pursuant to this section if the 
owner of the vehicle or the vehicle owner's agent returns to the 
vehicle after the vehicle is coupled to the tow truck by means of a 
regular hitch, coupling device, drawbar, portable dolly, or is lifted 
off the ground by means of a conventional trailer, and before it is 
removed from the private property. The regular towing charge may only 
be imposed after the vehicle has been removed from the property and 
is in transit. 
(i) (1) (A) A charge for towing or storage, or both, of a vehicle 
under this section is excessive if the charge exceeds the greater of 
the following: 
(i) That which would have been charged for that towing or storage, 
or both, made at the request of a law enforcement agency under an 
agreement between a towing company and the law enforcement agency 
that exercises primary jurisdiction in the city in which is located 
the private property from which the vehicle was, or was attempted to 
be, removed, or if the private property is not located within a city, 
then the law enforcement agency that exercises primary jurisdiction 
in the county in which the private property is located. 
(ii) That which would have been charged for that towing or 
storage, or both, under the rate approved for that towing operator by 
the California Highway Patrol for the jurisdiction in which the 
private property is located and from which the vehicle was, or was 
attempted to be, removed. 
(B) A towing operator shall make available for inspection and 
copying his or her rate approved by the California Highway Patrol, if 
any, within 24 hours of a request without a warrant to law 
enforcement, the Attorney General, district attorney, or city 
attorney. 
(2) If a vehicle is released within 24 hours from the time the 
vehicle is brought into the storage facility, regardless of the 
calendar date, the storage charge shall be for only one day. Not more 
than one day's storage charge may be required for a vehicle released 
the same day that it is stored. 
(3) If a request to release a vehicle is made and the appropriate 
fees are tendered and documentation establishing that the person 
requesting release is entitled to possession of the vehicle, or is 
the owner's insurance representative, is presented within the initial 
24 hours of storage, and the storage facility fails to comply with 
the request to release the vehicle or is not open for business during 
normal business hours, then only one day's storage charge may be 
required to be paid until after the first business day. A business 
day is any day in which the lienholder is open for business to the 
public for at least eight hours. If a request is made more than 24 
hours after the vehicle is placed in storage, charges may be imposed 
on a full calendar day basis for each day, or part thereof, that the 
vehicle is in storage. 
(j) (1) A person who charges a vehicle owner a towing, service, or 
storage charge at an excessive rate, as described in subdivision (h) 
or (i), is civilly liable to the vehicle owner for four times the 
amount charged. 
(2) A person who knowingly charges a vehicle owner a towing, 
service, or storage charge at an excessive rate, as described in 
subdivision (h) or (i), or who fails to make available his or her 
rate as required in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) of subdivision 
(i), is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more 
than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), or by imprisonment 
in the county jail for not more than three months, or by both that 
fine and imprisonment. 
(k) (1) A person operating or in charge of a storage facility 
where vehicles are stored pursuant to this section shall accept a 
valid bank credit card or cash for payment of towing and storage by a 
registered owner, the legal owner, or the owner's agent claiming the 
vehicle. A credit card shall be in the name of the person presenting 
the card. "Credit card" means "credit card" as defined in 
subdivision (a) of Section 1747.02 of the Civil Code, except, for the 
purposes of this section, credit card does not include a credit card 
issued by a retail seller. 
(2) A person described in paragraph (1) shall conspicuously 
display, in that portion of the storage facility office where 
business is conducted with the public, a notice advising that all 
valid credit cards and cash are acceptable means of payment. 
(3) A person operating or in charge of a storage facility who 
refuses to accept a valid credit card or who fails to post the 
required notice under paragraph (2) is guilty of a misdemeanor, 
punishable by a fine of not more than two thousand five hundred 
dollars ($2,500), or by imprisonment in the county jail for not more 
than three months, or by both that fine and imprisonment. 
(4) A person described in paragraph (1) who violates paragraph (1) 
or (2) is civilly liable to the registered owner of the vehicle or 
the person who tendered the fees for four times the amount of the 
towing and storage charges. 
(5) A person operating or in charge of the storage facility shall 
have sufficient moneys on the premises of the primary storage 
facility during normal business hours to accommodate, and make change 
in, a reasonable monetary transaction. 
(6) Credit charges for towing and storage services shall comply 
with Section 1748.1 of the Civil Code. Law enforcement agencies may 
include the costs of providing for payment by credit when making 
agreements with towing companies as described in subdivision (i). 
(l) (1) (A) A towing company shall not remove or commence the 
removal of a vehicle from private property without first obtaining 
the written authorization from the property owner or lessee, 
including an association of a common interest development, or an 
employee or agent thereof, who shall be present at the time of 
removal and verify the alleged violation, except that presence and 
verification is not required if the person authorizing the tow is the 
property owner, or the owner's agent who is not a tow operator, of a 
residential rental property of 15 or fewer units that does not have 
an onsite owner, owner's agent or employee, and the tenant has 
verified the violation, requested the tow from that tenant's assigned 
parking space, and provided a signed request or electronic mail, or 
has called and provides a signed request or electronic mail within 24 
hours, to the property owner or owner's agent, which the owner or 
agent shall provide to the towing company within 48 hours of 
authorizing the tow. The signed request or electronic mail shall 
contain the name and address of the tenant, and the date and time the 
tenant requested the tow. A towing company shall obtain, within 48 
hours of receiving the written authorization to tow, a copy of a 
tenant request required pursuant to this subparagraph. For the 
purpose of this subparagraph, a person providing the written 
authorization who is required to be present on the private property 
at the time of the tow does not have to be physically present at the 
specified location of where the vehicle to be removed is located on 
the private property. 
(B) The written authorization under subparagraph (A) shall include 
all of the following: 
(i) The make, model, vehicle identification number, and license 
plate number of the removed vehicle. 
(ii) The name, signature, job title, residential or business 
address and working telephone number of the person, described in 
subparagraph (A), authorizing the removal of the vehicle. 
(iii) The grounds for the removal of the vehicle. 
(iv) The time when the vehicle was first observed parked at the 
private property. 
(v) The time that authorization to tow the vehicle was given. 
(C) (i) When the vehicle owner or his or her agent claims the 
vehicle, the towing company prior to payment of a towing or storage 
charge shall provide a photocopy of the written authorization to the 
vehicle owner or the agent. 
(ii) If the vehicle was towed from a residential property, the 
towing company shall redact the information specified in clause (ii) 
of subparagraph (B) in the photocopy of the written authorization 
provided to the vehicle owner or the agent pursuant to clause (i). 
(iii) The towing company shall also provide to the vehicle owner 
or the agent a separate notice that provides the telephone number of 
the appropriate local law enforcement or prosecuting agency by 
stating "If you believe that you have been wrongfully towed, please 
contact the local law enforcement or prosecuting agency at ├Łinsert 
appropriate telephone number]." The notice shall be in English and in 
the most populous language, other than English, that is spoken in 
the jurisdiction. 
(D) A towing company shall not remove or commence the removal of a 
vehicle from private property described in subdivision (a) of 
Section 22953 unless the towing company has made a good faith inquiry 
to determine that the owner or the property owner's agent complied 
with Section 22953. 
(E) (i) General authorization to remove or commence removal of a 
vehicle at the towing company's discretion shall not be delegated to 
a towing company or its affiliates except in the case of a vehicle 
unlawfully parked within 15 feet of a fire hydrant or in a fire lane, 
or in a manner which interferes with an entrance to, or exit from, 
the private property. 
(ii) In those cases in which general authorization is granted to a 
towing company or its affiliate to undertake the removal or commence 
the removal of a vehicle that is unlawfully parked within 15 feet of 
a fire hydrant or in a fire lane, or that interferes with an 
entrance to, or exit from, private property, the towing company and 
the property owner, or owner's agent, or person in lawful possession 
of the private property shall have a written agreement granting that 
general authorization. 
(2) If a towing company removes a vehicle under a general 
authorization described in subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1) and that 
vehicle is unlawfully parked within 15 feet of a fire hydrant or in 
a fire lane, or in a manner that interferes with an entrance to, or 
exit from, the private property, the towing company shall take, prior 
to the removal of that vehicle, a photograph of the vehicle that 
clearly indicates that parking violation. Prior to accepting payment, 
the towing company shall keep one copy of the photograph taken 
pursuant to this paragraph, and shall present that photograph and 
provide, without charge, a photocopy to the owner or an agent of the 
owner, when that person claims the vehicle. 
(3) A towing company shall maintain the original written 
authorization, or the general authorization described in subparagraph 
(E) of paragraph (1) and the photograph of the violation, required 
pursuant to this section, and any written requests from a tenant to 
the property owner or owner's agent required by subparagraph (A) of 
paragraph (1), for a period of three years and shall make them 
available for inspection and copying within 24 hours of a request 
without a warrant to law enforcement, the Attorney General, district 
attorney, or city attorney. 
(4) A person who violates this subdivision is guilty of a 
misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than two thousand five 
hundred dollars ($2,500), or by imprisonment in the county jail for 
not more than three months, or by both that fine and imprisonment. 
(5) A person who violates this subdivision is civilly liable to 
the owner of the vehicle or his or her agent for four times the 
amount of the towing and storage charges. 
(m) (1) A towing company that removes a vehicle from private 
property under this section shall notify the local law enforcement 
agency of that tow after the vehicle is removed from the private 
property and is in transit. 
(2) A towing company is guilty of a misdemeanor if the towing 
company fails to provide the notification required under paragraph 
(1) within 60 minutes after the vehicle is removed from the private 
property and is in transit or 15 minutes after arriving at the 
storage facility, whichever time is less. 
(3) A towing company that does not provide the notification under 
paragraph (1) within 30 minutes after the vehicle is removed from the 
private property and is in transit is civilly liable to the 
registered owner of the vehicle, or the person who tenders the fees, 
for three times the amount of the towing and storage charges. 
(4) If notification is impracticable, the times for notification, 
as required pursuant to paragraphs (2) and (3), shall be tolled for 
the time period that notification is impracticable. This paragraph is 
an affirmative defense. 
(n) A vehicle removed from private property pursuant to this 
section shall be stored in a facility that meets all of the following 
requirements: 
(1) (A) Is located within a 10-mile radius of the property from 
where the vehicle was removed. 
(B) The 10-mile radius requirement of subparagraph (A) does not 
apply if a towing company has prior general written approval from the 
law enforcement agency that exercises primary jurisdiction in the 
city in which is located the private property from which the vehicle 
was removed, or if the private property is not located within a city, 
then the law enforcement agency that exercises primary jurisdiction 
in the county in which is located the private property. 
(2) (A) Remains open during normal business hours and releases 
vehicles after normal business hours. 
(B) A gate fee may be charged for releasing a vehicle after normal 
business hours, weekends, and state holidays. However, the maximum 
hourly charge for releasing a vehicle after normal business hours 
shall be one-half of the hourly tow rate charged for initially towing 
the vehicle, or less. 
(C) Notwithstanding any other provision of law and for purposes of 
this paragraph, "normal business hours" are Monday to Friday, 
inclusive, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., inclusive, except state holidays. 
(3) Has a public pay telephone in the office area that is open and 
accessible to the public. 
(o) (1) It is the intent of the Legislature in the adoption of 
subdivision (k) to assist vehicle owners or their agents by, among 
other things, allowing payment by credit cards for towing and storage 
services, thereby expediting the recovery of towed vehicles and 
concurrently promoting the safety and welfare of the public. 
(2) It is the intent of the Legislature in the adoption of 
subdivision (l) to further the safety of the general public by 
ensuring that a private property owner or lessee has provided his or 
her authorization for the removal of a vehicle from his or her 
property, thereby promoting the safety of those persons involved in 
ordering the removal of the vehicle as well as those persons 
removing, towing, and storing the vehicle. 
(3) It is the intent of the Legislature in the adoption of 
subdivision (g) to promote the safety of the general public by 
requiring towing companies to unconditionally release a vehicle that 
is not lawfully in their possession, thereby avoiding the likelihood 
of dangerous and violent confrontation and physical injury to vehicle 
owners and towing operators, the stranding of vehicle owners and 
their passengers at a dangerous time and location, and impeding 
expedited vehicle recovery, without wasting law enforcement's limited 
resources. 
(p) The remedies, sanctions, restrictions, and procedures provided 
in this section are not exclusive and are in addition to other 
remedies, sanctions, restrictions, or procedures that may be provided 
in other provisions of law, including, but not limited to, those 
that are provided in Sections 12110 and 34660. 
(q) A vehicle removed and stored pursuant to this section shall be 
released by the law enforcement agency, impounding agency, or person 
in possession of the vehicle, or any person acting on behalf of 
them, to the legal owner or the legal owner's agent upon presentation 
of the assignment, as defined in subdivision (b) of Section 7500.1 
of the Business and Professions Code; a release from the one 
responsible governmental agency, only if required by the agency; a 
government-issued photographic identification card; and any one of 
the following as determined by the legal owner or the legal owner's 
agent: a certificate of repossession for the vehicle, a security 
agreement for the vehicle, or title, whether paper or electronic, 
showing proof of legal ownership for the vehicle. Any documents 
presented may be originals, photocopies, or facsimile copies, or may 
be transmitted electronically. The storage facility shall not require 
any documents to be notarized. The storage facility may require the 
agent of the legal owner to produce a photocopy or facsimile copy of 
its repossession agency license or registration issued pursuant to 
Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 7500) of Division 3 of the 
Business and Professions Code, or to demonstrate, to the satisfaction 
of the storage facility, that the agent is exempt from licensure 
pursuant to Section 7500.2 or 7500.3 of the Business and Professions 
Code.


22658.1. (a) Any towing company that, in removing a vehicle, cuts, 
removes, otherwise damages, or leaves open a fence without the prior 
approval of the property owner or the person in charge of the 
property shall then and there do either of the following: 
(1) Locate and notify the owner or person in charge of the 
property of the damage or open condition of the fence, the name and 
address of the towing company, and the license, registration, or 
identification number of the vehicle being removed. 
(2) Leave in a conspicuous place on the property the name and 
address of the towing company, and the license, registration, or 
identification number of the vehicle being removed, and shall without 
unnecessary delay, notify the police department of the city in which 
the property is located, or if the property is located in 
unincorporated territory, either the sheriff or the local 
headquarters of the Department of the California Highway Patrol, of 
that information and the location of the damaged or opened fence. 
(b) Any person failing to comply with all the requirements of this 
section is guilty of an infraction.

22659. Any peace officer of the Department of the California 
Highway Patrol or any person duly authorized by the state agency in 
possession of property owned by the state, or rented or leased from 
others by the state and any peace officer of the Department of the 
California Highway Patrol providing policing services to property of 
a district agricultural association may, subsequent to giving notice 
to the city police or county sheriff, whichever is appropriate, cause 
the removal of a vehicle from the property to the nearest public 
garage, under any of the following circumstances: 
(a) When the vehicle is illegally parked in locations where signs 
are posted giving notice of violation and removal. 
(b) When an officer arrests any person driving or in control of a 
vehicle for an alleged offense and the officer is by this code or 
other law required to take the person arrested before a magistrate 
without unnecessary delay. 
(c) When any vehicle is found upon the property and report has 
previously been made that the vehicle has been stolen or complaint 
has been filed and a warrant thereon issued charging that the vehicle 
has been embezzled. 
(d) When the person or persons in charge of a vehicle upon the 
property are by reason of physical injuries or illness incapacitated 
to that extent as to be unable to provide for its custody or removal. 
The person causing removal of the vehicle shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 22852 and 22853 relating to notice.

22659.5. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a city or a 
county may adopt an ordinance declaring a motor vehicle to be a 
public nuisance subject to seizure and an impoundment period of up to 
30 days when the motor vehicle is used in the commission or 
attempted commission of an act that violates Section 266h or 266i of, 
subdivision (h) of Section 374.3 of, or subdivision (b) of Section 
647 of, the Penal Code, if the owner or operator of the vehicle has 
had a prior conviction for the same offense within the past three 
years. An ordinance adopted pursuant to this section may incorporate 
any combination or all of these offenses. The vehicle may only be 
impounded pursuant to a valid arrest of the driver for a violation of 
one of these provisions. An ordinance adopted pursuant to this 
section shall, at a minimum, contain all of the following provisions: 
(a) Within two working days after impoundment, the impounding 
agency shall send a notice by certified mail, return receipt 
requested, to the legal owner of the vehicle, at the address obtained 
from the department, informing the owner that the vehicle has been 
impounded. The notice shall also include notice of the opportunity 
for a poststorage hearing to determine the validity of the storage or 
to determine mitigating circumstances establishing that the vehicle 
should be released. The impounding agency shall be prohibited from 
charging for more than five days' storage if it fails to notify the 
legal owner within two working days after the impoundment when the 
legal owner redeems the impounded vehicle. The impounding agency 
shall maintain a published telephone number that provides information 
24 hours a day regarding the impoundment of vehicles and the rights 
of a legal owner and a registered owner to request a hearing. The 
notice shall include all of the following information: 
(1) The name, address, and telephone number of the agency 
providing the notice. 
(2) The location of the place of storage and description of the 
vehicle, that shall include, if available, the model or make, the 
manufacturer, the license plate number, and the mileage. 
(3) The authority and purpose for the removal of the vehicle. 
(4) A statement that, in order to receive a poststorage hearing, 
the owners, or their agents, shall request the hearing in person, 
writing, or by telephone within 10 days of the date appearing on the 
notice. 
(b) The poststorage hearing shall be conducted within 48 hours of 
the request, excluding weekends and holidays. The public agency may 
authorize one of its own officers or employees to conduct the hearing 
if that hearing officer is not the same person who directed the 
seizure of the vehicle. 
(c) Failure of the legal and the registered owners, or their 
agents, to request or to attend a scheduled hearing shall satisfy the 
poststorage hearing requirement. 
(d) The agency employing the person who directed the storage shall 
be responsible for the costs incurred for towing and storage if it 
is determined in the poststorage hearing that reasonable grounds for 
the storage are not established. 
(e) Any period during which a vehicle is subjected to storage 
under an ordinance adopted pursuant to this section shall be included 
as part of the period of impoundment. 
(f) The impounding agency shall release the vehicle to the 
registered owner or his or her agent prior to the end of the 
impoundment period under any of the following circumstances: 
(1) The driver of the impounded vehicle was arrested without 
probable cause. 
(2) The vehicle is a stolen vehicle. 
(3) The vehicle is subject to bailment and was driven by an 
unlicensed employee of a business establishment, including a parking 
service or repair garage. 
(4) The driver of the vehicle is not the sole registered owner of 
the vehicle and the vehicle is being released to another registered 
owner of the vehicle who agrees not to allow the driver to use the 
vehicle until after the end of the impoundment period. 
(5) The registered owner of the vehicle was neither the driver nor 
a passenger of the vehicle at the time of the alleged violation, or 
was unaware that the driver was using the vehicle to engage in 
activities subject to Section 266h or 266i of, or subdivision (b) of 
Section 647 of, the Penal Code. 
(6) A spouse, registered domestic partner, or other affected third 
party objects to the impoundment of the vehicle on the grounds that 
it would create a hardship if the subject vehicle is the sole vehicle 
in a household. The hearing officer shall release the vehicle where 
the hardship to a spouse, registered domestic partner, or other 
affected third party created by the impoundment of the subject 
vehicle, or the length of the impoundment, outweigh the seriousness 
and the severity of the act in which the vehicle was used. 
(g) Notwithstanding any provision of law, if a motor vehicle is 
released prior to the conclusion of the impoundment period because 
the driver was arrested without probable cause, neither the arrested 
person nor the registered owner of the motor vehicle shall be 
responsible for the towing and storage charges. 
(h) Except as provided in subdivision (g), the registered owner or 
his or her agent shall be responsible for all towing and storage 
charges related to the impoundment. 
(i) A vehicle removed and seized under an ordinance adopted 
pursuant to this section shall be released to the legal owner of the 
vehicle or the legal owner's agent prior to the end of the 
impoundment period if both of the following conditions are met: 
(1) The legal owner is a motor vehicle dealer, bank, credit union, 
acceptance corporation, or other licensed financial institution 
legally operating in this state, or is another person who is not the 
registered owner and holds a security interest in the vehicle. 
(2) The legal owner or the legal owner's agent pays all towing and 
storage fees related to the seizure and impoundment of the vehicle. 
(j) (1) No lien sale processing fees shall be charged to the legal 
owner who redeems the vehicle prior to the 15th day of the 
impoundment period. Neither the impounding authority nor any person 
having possession of the vehicle shall collect from the legal owner 
as described in paragraph (1) of subdivision (i), or the legal owner' 
s agent, any administrative charges imposed pursuant to Section 
22850.5, unless the legal owner voluntarily requested a poststorage 
hearing. 
(2) A person operating or in charge of a storage facility where 
vehicles are stored pursuant to this section shall accept a valid 
bank credit card or cash for payment of towing, storage, and related 
fees by a legal or registered owner or the owner's agent claiming the 
vehicle. A credit card or debit card shall be in the name of the 
person presenting the card. For purposes of this section, "credit 
card" is as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 1747.02 of the 
Civil Code. Credit card does not include a credit card issued by a 
retail seller. 
(3) A person operating or in charge of a storage facility 
described in paragraph (2) who violates paragraph (2) shall be 
civilly liable to the owner of the vehicle or the person who tendered 
the fees for four times the amount of the towing, storage, and 
related fees not to exceed five hundred dollars ($500). 
(4) A person operating or in charge of the storage facility 
described in paragraph (2) shall have sufficient funds on the 
premises of the primary storage facility during normal business hours 
to accommodate, and make change for, a reasonable monetary 
transaction. 
(5) Credit charges for towing and storage services shall comply 
with Section 1748.1 of the Civil Code. Law enforcement agencies may 
include the costs of providing for payment by credit when making 
agreements with towing companies on rates. 
(6) A failure by a storage facility to comply with any applicable 
conditions set forth in this subdivision shall not affect the right 
of the legal owner or the legal owner's agent to retrieve the vehicle 
if all conditions required of the legal owner or legal owner's agent 
under this subdivision are satisfied. 
(k) (1) The legal owner or the legal owner's agent shall present 
to the law enforcement agency, impounding agency, person in 
possession of the vehicle, or any person acting on behalf of those 
agencies, a copy of the assignment, as defined in subdivision (b) of 
Section 7500.1 of the Business and Professions Code, a release from 
the one responsible governmental agency, only if required by the 
agency, a government-issued photographic identification card, and any 
one of the following as determined by the legal owner or the legal 
owner's agent: a certificate of repossession for the vehicle, a 
security agreement for the vehicle, or title, whether or not 
paperless or electronic, showing proof of legal ownership for the 
vehicle. Any documents presented may be originals, photocopies, or 
facsimile copies, or may be transmitted electronically. The law 
enforcement agency, impounding agency, or other governmental agency, 
or any person acting on behalf of those agencies, shall not require 
any documents to be notarized. The law enforcement agency, impounding 
agency, or any person acting on behalf of those agencies may require 
the agent of the legal owner to produce a photocopy or facsimile 
copy of its repossession agency license or registration issued 
pursuant to Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 7500) of Division 3 
of the Business and Professions Code, or to demonstrate, to the 
satisfaction of the law enforcement agency, impounding agency, or any 
person acting on behalf of those agencies that the agent is exempt 
from licensure pursuant to Section 7500.2 or 7500.3 of the Business 
and Professions Code. 
(2) Administrative costs authorized under subdivision (a) of 
Section 22850.5 shall not be charged to the legal owner of the type 
specified in paragraph (1) of subdivision (i) who redeems the vehicle 
unless the legal owner voluntarily requests a poststorage hearing. A 
city, county, city and county, or state agency shall not require a 
legal owner or a legal owner's agent to request a poststorage hearing 
as a requirement for release of the vehicle to the legal owner or 
the legal owner's agent. The law enforcement agency, impounding 
agency, or other governmental agency, or any person acting on behalf 
of those agencies, shall not require any documents other than those 
specified in this paragraph. The legal owner or the legal owner's 
agent shall be given a copy of any documents he or she is required to 
sign, except for a vehicle evidentiary hold log book. The law 
enforcement agency, impounding agency, or any person acting on behalf 
of those agencies, or any person in possession of the vehicle, may 
photocopy and retain the copies of any documents presented by the 
legal owner or legal owner's agent. The legal owner shall indemnify 
and hold harmless a storage facility from any claims arising out of 
the release of the vehicle to the legal owner or the legal owner's 
agent and from any damage to the vehicle after its release, including 
the reasonable costs associated with defending any such claims. 
(l) A legal owner, who meets the requirements for release of a 
vehicle pursuant to subdivision (i), or the legal owner's agent, 
shall not be required to request a poststorage hearing as a 
requirement for release of the vehicle to the legal owner or the 
legal owner's agent. 
(m) (1) A legal owner, who meets the requirements for release of a 
vehicle pursuant to subdivision (i), or the legal owner's agent, 
shall not release the vehicle to the registered owner of the vehicle 
or an agent of the registered owner, unless the registered owner is a 
rental car agency, until after the termination of the impoundment 
period. 
(2) Prior to relinquishing the vehicle, the legal owner may 
require the registered owner to pay all towing and storage charges 
related to the seizure and impoundment. 
(n) (1) A vehicle removed and seized pursuant to an ordinance 
adopted pursuant to this section shall be released to a rental car 
agency prior to the end of the impoundment period if the agency is 
either the legal owner or registered owner of the vehicle and the 
agency pays all towing and storage fees related to the seizure and 
impoundment of the vehicle. 
(2) The owner of a rental vehicle that was seized under an 
ordinance adopted pursuant to this section may continue to rent the 
vehicle upon recovery of the vehicle. However, the rental car agency 
shall not rent another vehicle to the driver of the vehicle that was 
seized until the impoundment period has expired. 
(3) The rental car agency may require the person to whom the 
vehicle was rented to pay all towing and storage charges related to 
the seizure and impoundment.

22660. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a city, county, 
or city and county may adopt an ordinance establishing procedures for 
the abatement and removal, as public nuisances, of abandoned, 
wrecked, dismantled, or inoperative vehicles or parts thereof from 
private or public property, and for the recovery, pursuant to Section 
25845 or 38773.5 of the Government Code, or assumption by the local 
authority, of costs of administration and the removal.

22661. Any ordinance establishing procedures for the removal of 
abandoned vehicles shall contain all of the following provisions: 
(a) The requirement that notice be given to the Department of 
Motor Vehicles within five days after the date of removal, 
identifying the vehicle or part thereof and any evidence of 
registration available, including, but not limited to, the 
registration card, certificates of ownership, or license plates. 
(b) Making the ordinance inapplicable to (1) a vehicle or part 
thereof that is completely enclosed within a building in a lawful 
manner where it is not visible from the street or other public or 
private property or (2) a vehicle or part thereof that is stored or 
parked in a lawful manner on private property in connection with the 
business of a licensed dismantler, licensed vehicle dealer, or a 
junkyard. This exception shall not, however, authorize the 
maintenance of a public or private nuisance as defined under 
provisions of law other than this chapter. 
(c) The requirement that not less than a 10-day notice of 
intention to abate and remove the vehicle or part thereof as a public 
nuisance be issued, unless the property owner and the owner of the 
vehicle have signed releases authorizing removal and waiving further 
interest in the vehicle or part thereof. However, the notice of 
intention is not required for removal of a vehicle or part thereof 
that is inoperable due to the absence of a motor, transmission, or 
wheels and incapable of being towed, is valued at less than two 
hundred dollars ($200) by a person specified in Section 22855, and is 
determined by the local agency to be a public nuisance presenting an 
immediate threat to public health or safety, provided that the 
property owner has signed a release authorizing removal and waiving 
further interest in the vehicle or part thereof. Prior to final 
disposition under Section 22662 of such a low-valued vehicle or part 
for which evidence of registration was recovered pursuant to 
subdivision (a), the local agency shall provide notice to the 
registered and legal owners of intent to dispose of the vehicle or 
part, and if the vehicle or part is not claimed and removed within 12 
days after the notice is mailed, from a location specified in 
Section 22662, final disposition may proceed. No local agency or 
contractor thereof shall be liable for damage caused to a vehicle or 
part thereof by removal pursuant to this section. 
This subdivision applies only to inoperable vehicles located upon 
a parcel that is (1) zoned for agricultural use or (2) not improved 
with a residential structure containing one or more dwelling units. 
(d) The 10-day notice of intention to abate and remove a vehicle 
or part thereof, when required by this section, shall contain a 
statement of the hearing rights of the owner of the property on which 
the vehicle is located and of the owner of the vehicle. The 
statement shall include notice to the property owner that he or she 
may appear in person at a hearing or may submit a sworn written 
statement denying responsibility for the presence of the vehicle on 
the land, with his or her reasons for such denial, in lieu of 
appearing. The notice of intention to abate shall be mailed, by 
registered or certified mail, to the owner of the land as shown on 
the last equalized assessment roll and to the last registered and 
legal owners of record unless the vehicle is in such condition that 
identification numbers are not available to determine ownership. 
(e) The requirement that a public hearing be held before the 
governing body of the city, county, or city and county, or any other 
board, commissioner, or official of the city, county, or city and 
county as designated by the governing body, upon request for such a 
hearing by the owner of the vehicle or the owner of the land on which 
the vehicle is located. This request shall be made to the 
appropriate public body, agency, or officer within 10 days after the 
mailing of notice of intention to abate and remove the vehicle or at 
the time of signing a release pursuant to subdivision (c). If the 
owner of the land on which the vehicle is located submits a sworn 
written statement denying responsibility for the presence of the 
vehicle on his or her land within that time period, this statement 
shall be construed as a request for hearing that does not require the 
presence of the owner submitting the request. If the request is not 
received within that period, the appropriate public body, agency, or 
officer shall have the authority to remove the vehicle. 
(f) The requirement that after a vehicle has been removed, it 
shall not be reconstructed or made operable, unless it is a vehicle 
that qualifies for either horseless carriage license plates or 
historical vehicle license plates, pursuant to Section 5004, in which 
case the vehicle may be reconstructed or made operable. 
(g) A provision authorizing the owner of the land on which the 
vehicle is located to appear in person at the hearing or present a 
sworn written statement denying responsibility for the presence of 
the vehicle on the land, with his or her reasons for the denial. If 
it is determined at the hearing that the vehicle was placed on the 
land without the consent of the landowner and that he or she has not 
subsequently acquiesced to its presence, then the local authority 
shall not assess costs of administration or removal of the vehicle 
against the property upon which the vehicle is located or otherwise 
attempt to collect those costs from the owner.

22662. Vehicles or parts thereof may be disposed of by removal to a 
scrapyard, automobile dismantler's yard, or any suitable site 
operated by a local authority for processing as scrap, or other final 
disposition consistent with subdivision (e) of Section 22661. A 
local authority may operate such a disposal site when its governing 
body determines that commercial channels of disposition are not 
available or are inadequate, and it may make final disposition of 
such vehicles or parts, or the local agency may transfer such vehicle 
or parts to another, provided such disposal shall be only as scrap.

22663. Any ordinance adopted pursuant to Section 22660 shall 
provide for administration of the ordinance by regularly salaried 
full-time employees of the city, county, or city and county, except 
that the removal of vehicles or parts thereof from property may be by 
any other duly authorized person. Any such authorized person may 
enter upon private property for the purposes specified in the 
ordinance to examine a vehicle or parts thereof, obtain information 
as to the identity of a vehicle, and remove or cause the removal of a 
vehicle or part thereof declared to be a nuisance pursuant to the 
ordinance.


22664. Any licensed dismantler or commercial enterprise acquiring 
vehicles removed pursuant to such ordinance shall be excused from the 
reporting requirements of Section 11520; and any fees and penalties 
which would otherwise be due the Department of Motor Vehicles are 
hereby waived, provided that a copy of the resolution or order 
authorizing disposition of the vehicle is retained in the dismantler' 
s or commercial enterprise's business records.

22665. Notwithstanding Section 22710 or any other provision of law, 
the department may, at the request of a local authority, other than 
a service authority, administer on behalf of the authority its 
abandoned vehicle abatement and removal program established pursuant 
to Section 22660.

22666. Whenever the department is administering a program pursuant 
to Section 22665, it shall by regulation establish procedures for the 
abatement and removal of vehicles that are identical to the 
requirements specified in Section 22661, except that the department 
shall provide by agreement with the requesting local authority for 
the conduct of a public hearing pursuant to subdivision (d) of 
Section 22661 by the local authority and for the reimbursement of the 
department for its costs of administration and removal which the 
local authority is authorized to recover from the property owner 
pursuant to Section 22660. Such regulations shall also provide for 
the administration of the regulations by regularly salaried, 
full-time personnel of the department, except that the removal of 
vehicles or parts thereof from property may be done by any other duly 
authorized person. Any such person may enter upon private property 
for the purposes specified in the regulations to examine a vehicle or 
parts thereof, obtain information as to the identity of a vehicle, 
and remove or cause the removal of a vehicle or part thereof declared 
to be a nuisance pursuant to the regulations. 
The provisions of Sections 22662 and 22664 shall also apply to any 
vehicle removed by the department.

22667. In establishing procedures for the abatement and removal of 
abandoned vehicles, the department shall give priority to the removal 
of abandoned vehicles from corridors of the state highway system, 
from public lands and parks, and from river and wildlife areas.

22668. No local authority whose abandoned vehicle abatement and 
removal program is administered pursuant to Section 22665 shall be 
eligible for any disbursement from the Abandoned Vehicle Trust Fund 
pursuant to Section 22710.


22669. (a) Any peace officer, as that term is defined in Chapter 
4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal 
Code, or any other employee of the state, county, or city designated 
by an agency or department of the state or the board of supervisors 
or city council to perform this function, in the territorial limits 
in which the officer or employee is authorized to act, who has 
reasonable grounds to believe that the vehicle has been abandoned, as 
determined pursuant to Section 22523, may remove the vehicle from a 
highway or from public or private property. 
(b) Any person performing a franchise or contract awarded pursuant 
to subdivision (a) of Section 22710, may remove a vehicle from a 
highway or place to which it has been removed pursuant to subdivision 
(c) of Section 22654 or from public or private property, after a 
determination by a peace officer, as that term is defined in Chapter 
4.5 (commencing with Section 830) of Title 3 of Part 2 of the Penal 
Code, or other designated employee of the state, county, or city in 
which the vehicle is located that the vehicle is abandoned, as 
determined pursuant to Section 22523. 
(c) A state, county, or city employee, other than a peace officer 
or employee of a sheriff's department or a city police department, 
designated to remove vehicles pursuant to this section may do so only 
after he or she has mailed or personally delivered a written report 
identifying the vehicle and its location to the office of the 
Department of the California Highway Patrol located nearest to the 
vehicle. 
(d) Motor vehicles which are parked, resting, or otherwise 
immobilized on any highway or public right-of-way and which lack an 
engine, transmission, wheels, tires, doors, windshield, or any other 
part or equipment necessary to operate safely on the highways of this 
state, are hereby declared a hazard to public health, safety, and 
welfare and may be removed immediately upon discovery by a peace 
officer or other designated employee of the state, county, or city.

22670. (a) For lien sale purposes, the public agency causing the 
removal of the vehicle shall determine if the estimated value of the 
vehicle that has been ordered removed, towed, or stored is five 
hundred dollars ($500) or less, over five hundred dollars ($500) but 
four thousand dollars ($4,000) or less, or over four thousand dollars 
($4,000). 
(b) If the public agency fails or refuses to put a value on, or to 
estimate the value of, the vehicle within three days after the date 
of removal of the vehicle, the garage keeper specified in Section 
22851 or the garage keeper's agent shall determine, under penalty of 
perjury, if the estimated value of the vehicle that has been ordered 
removed, towed, or stored, is five hundred dollars ($500) or less, 
over five hundred dollars ($500) but four thousand dollars ($4,000) 
or less, or over four thousand dollars ($4,000).

22671. A local authority may either issue a franchise or execute a 
contract for the removal of abandoned vehicles in accordance with the 
provisions of this chapter.

22710. (a) A service authority for the abatement of abandoned 
vehicles may be established, and a one dollar ($1) vehicle 
registration fee imposed, in a county if the board of supervisors of 
the county, by a two-thirds vote, and a majority of the cities having 
a majority of the incorporated population within the county have 
adopted resolutions providing for the establishment of the authority 
and imposition of the fee. The membership of the authority shall be 
determined by concurrence of the board of supervisors and a majority 
vote of the majority of the cities within the county having a 
majority of the incorporated population. 
(b) The authority may contract and may undertake any act 
convenient or necessary to carry out a law relating to the authority. 
The authority shall be staffed by existing personnel of the city, 
county, or county transportation commission. 
(c) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a service 
authority may adopt an ordinance establishing procedures for the 
abatement, removal, and disposal, as a public nuisance, of an 
abandoned, wrecked, dismantled, or inoperative vehicle or part of the 
vehicle from private or public property; and for the recovery, 
pursuant to Section 25845 or 38773.5 of the Government Code, or 
assumption by the service authority, of costs associated with the 
enforcement of the ordinance. Cost recovery shall only be undertaken 
by an entity that may be a county or city or the department, pursuant 
to contract with the service authority as provided in this section. 
(2) (A) The money received by an authority pursuant to Section 
9250.7 and this section shall be used only for the abatement, 
removal, or the disposal as a public nuisance of any abandoned, 
wrecked, dismantled, or inoperative vehicle or part of the vehicle 
from private or public property. The money received shall not be used 
to offset the costs of vehicles towed under authorities other than 
an ordinance adopted pursuant to paragraph (1) or when costs are 
recovered under Section 22850.5. 
(B) The money received by a service authority pursuant to Section 
9250.7 and this section that are unexpended in a fiscal year may be 
carried forward by the service authority for the abandoned vehicle 
abatement program in the following fiscal year as agreed upon by the 
service authority and its member agencies. 
(d) (1) An abandoned vehicle abatement program and plan of a 
service authority shall be implemented only with the approval of the 
county and a majority of the cities having a majority of the 
incorporated population. 
(2) (A) The department shall provide guidelines for an abandoned 
vehicle abatement program. An authority's abandoned vehicle abatement 
plan and program shall be consistent with those guidelines, and 
shall provide for, but not be limited to, an estimate of the number 
of abandoned vehicles, a disposal and enforcement strategy including 
contractual agreements, and appropriate fiscal controls. 
(B) The department's guidelines provided pursuant to this 
paragraph shall include, but not be limited to, requiring each 
service authority receiving funds from the Abandoned Vehicle Trust 
Fund to report to the Controller on an annual basis pursuant to 
subdivision (c) of Section 9250.7, in a manner prescribed by the 
department, and pursuant to an approved abandoned vehicle abatement 
program. 
(C) A service authority may carry out an abandoned vehicle 
abatement from a public property after providing a notice as 
specified by the local ordinance adopted pursuant to Section 22660 of 
the jurisdiction in which the abandoned vehicle is located and that 
notice has expired. 
(3) After a plan has been approved pursuant to paragraph (1), the 
service authority shall, not later than August 1 of the year in which 
the plan was approved, submit it to the department for review, and 
the department shall, not later than October 1 of that same year, 
either approve the plan as submitted or make recommendations for 
revision. After the plan has received the department's approval as 
being consistent with the department's guidelines, the service 
authority shall submit it to the Controller. 
(4) Except as provided in subdivision (e), the Controller shall 
not make an allocation for a fiscal year, commencing on July 1 
following the Controller's determination to suspend a service 
authority when a service authority has failed to comply with the 
provisions set forth in Section 9250.7. 
(5) A governmental agency shall not receive funds from a service 
authority for the abatement of abandoned vehicles pursuant to an 
approved abandoned vehicle abatement program unless the governmental 
agency has submitted an annual report to the service authority 
stating the manner in which the funds were expended, and the number 
of vehicles abated. The governmental agency shall receive that 
percentage of the total funds collected by the service authority that 
is equal to its share of the formula calculated pursuant to 
paragraph (6). 
(6) Each service authority shall calculate a formula for 
apportioning funds to each governmental agency that receives funds 
from the service authority and submit that formula to the Controller 
with the annual report required pursuant to paragraph (2). The 
formula shall apportion 50 percent of the funds received by the 
service authority to a governmental agency based on the percentage of 
vehicles abated by that governmental agency of the total number of 
abandoned vehicles abated by all member agencies, and 50 percent 
based on population and geographic area, as determined by the service 
authority. When the formula is first submitted to the Controller, 
and each time the formula is revised thereafter, the service 
authority shall include a detailed explanation of how the service 
authority determined the apportionment between per capita abatements 
and service area. 
(7) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subdivision, the 
Controller may allocate to the service authority in the County of 
Humboldt the net amount of the abandoned vehicle abatement funds 
received from the fee imposed by that authority, as described in 
subdivision (b) of Section 9250.7, for calendar years 2000 and 2001. 
(e) A plan that has been submitted to the Controller pursuant to 
subdivision (d) may be revised pursuant to the procedure prescribed 
in that subdivision, including compliance with any dates described 
therein for submission to the department and the Controller, 
respectively, in the year in which the revisions are proposed by the 
service authority. Compliance with that procedure shall only be 
required if the revisions are substantial. 
(f) For purposes of this section, "abandoned vehicle abatement" 
means the removal of a vehicle from public or private property by 
towing or any other means after the vehicle has been marked as 
abandoned by an official of a governmental agency that is a member of 
the service authority. 
(g) A service authority shall cease to exist on the date that all 
revenues received by the authority pursuant to this section and 
Section 9250.7 have been expended. 
(h) In the event of a conflict with other provisions of law, this 
section shall govern the disbursement of money collected pursuant to 
this section and from the Abandoned Vehicle Trust Fund for the 
implementation of the abandoned vehicle abatement program.

22711. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the California 
Highway Patrol, any city, county, or city and county which has an 
abandoned vehicle abatement program, and any service authority 
established under Section 22710, upon satisfying all applicable 
reporting requirements provided in this chapter, may, with the 
consent of the Director of Corrections, transport any abandoned 
vehicle to, and dispose of any abandoned vehicle at, any institution 
under the jurisdiction of the director which has a program 
established pursuant to Section 2813.5 of the Penal Code.

 
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